Sample Term Papers

Essay on Sustainable Livelihood Framework/Approach

This framework addresses the impacts of environmental hazards and shocks. It involves financial capital, natural capital, human capital, physical capital and social capital (Rural Livelihood Systems). The human capital comprises of the capacity to adapt, the capacity to work, skills and knowledge, education, nutrition and health. The natural capital comprises of environmental services, biodiversity, fibres and wild foods, wildlife, forest products and trees, aquatic and water resources and land. The social capital comprises of leadership, mechanisms for participation in decision making, collection representation, common sanctions and rules, informal and formal groups, relations of mutual support and trust, connections and networks. The physical capital comprises of technology and tools and infrastructure. The financial comprises of wages, pensions, remittances, debit/credit – NGOs, informal, formal and savings.

The significance of early warning was one of the key lessons learnt from the 2004 tsunami. Early warning systems were inadequate when the waves struck the areas. To reduce the impact of future disasters and to develop mechanisms and approaches for better early warning systems, a collective effort was embarked by the Asia-Pacific region in the aftermath. In the Pacific and Asia, over the intervening years, these efforts have intensified. To promote and safeguard livelihoods, lives and sustainable development, one of the options adopted was building resilience. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) which was adopted in Japan few weeks after it got hit by a disaster was shaped by after the experience of the 2004 tsunami.

To enhance the effective early warning systems, to complement global agreements on climate change and to develop a new disaster-preparedness plan, this framework was modified. In the year 2005, in the shadow of the tsunami disaster the WCD was held. Distinct environmental dimensions were displayed by many of the key activities recommended in its Programme of Action (PoA). The Hyogo Framework of Action was also recommended and required to be placed on natural resource and environmental management. To reduce vulnerabilities and risk, the sustainable management and use of ecosystems through development activities and better land-use planning is also encouraged by it.

It also calls for the implementation of natural resource and integrated environmental management approaches that including non-structural and structural measures, like, appropriate management of fragile ecosystems and flood management systems incorporates disaster risk reduction. In strategies for adaptation to climate change and for the reduction of disaster risk, the integration of future climate change, existing climate variability associated with risk reduction was also recommended by the PoA. This would involve clear identification of routine and improve use of climate risk information by decision-makers, engineers and planners, the design of specific risk reduction measures and climate-related disaster risks. With mitigation and prevention of natural disaster, multi-hazard and anticipative risk reduction was emphasized and proactive instead of reactive approaches were adopted.